This is a guest post by Jeffrey Ryan Thalhammer, author of Pinto and of Perl::Critic. Jeff operates a small consulting company in San Francisco and has been active in the Perl community for many years. Till May 7 Jeff is running a fund-raiser to finance the development of the feature that will allow you to specify module version ranges in Pinto.
One of the best things about Perl are all the open source modules that are available on CPAN. But keeping up with all those modules is difficult. Every week there are hundreds of new releases and you never know when a new version of a module will introduce a bug that breaks your application.
This article was originally published on Pragmatic Perl
One strategy for solving this problem is to construct your own custom CPAN repository that contains only the versions of the modules that you want. Then you can use the CPAN tool chain to build your application from the modules in your custom repository without being exposed to all the churn in the public CPAN.
Over the years, I've built several custom CPAN repositories using tools like CPAN::Mini and CPAN::Site. But they always seemed clunky and I was never very happy with them. A couple years ago, a client hired me to build them another custom CPAN. But this time, I had an opportunity to start from scratch. Pinto is the result of that work.
Pinto is a robust tool for creating and managing a custom CPAN repository. It has several powerful features that help you safely manage all the Perl modules your application depends on. This tutorial will show you how to create a custom CPAN with Pinto and demonstrate some of those features.
Pinto is available on CPAN and can be installed like any other module using the cpan or cpanm utilities. But Pinto is more like an application than a library. It is a tool that you use to manage your application code, but Pinto is not actually part of your application. So I recommend installing Pinto as a stand-alone application with these two commands:
curl -L http://getpinto.stratopan.com | bash source ~/opt/local/pinto/etc/bashrc
That will install Pinto into ~/opt/local/pinto and add the necessary directories to your PATH and MANPATH. Everything is self-contained, so installing Pinto does not change the rest of your development environment, nor will changes in your development environment affect Pinto.
As with any new tool, the first thing you should know is how to get help:
pinto commands # Show a list of available commands pinto help <COMMAND> # Show a summary of options and arguments for <COMMAND> pinto manual <COMMAND> # Show the complete manual for <COMMAND>
Pinto also ships with other documentation, including a tutorial and quick-reference guide. You can access those documents using these commands:
man Pinto::Manual::Introduction # Explains basic Pinto concepts man Pinto::Manual::Installing # Suggestions for installing Pinto man Pinto::Manual::Tutorial # A narrative guide to Pinto man Pinto::Manual::QuickStart # A summary of common commands
Creating A Repository
The first step in using Pinto is to create a repository using the init command:
pinto -r ~/repo init
This will create a new repository in the ~/repo directory. If that directory does not exist, it will be created for you. If it does already exist, then it must be empty.
The -r (or --root) flag specifies where the repository is. This is required for every pinto command. But if you get tired of typing it, you can set the PINTO_REPOSITORY_ROOT environment variable to point to your repository and then omit the -r flag.
Inspecting The Repository
Now that you have a repository, let's look inside it. To see the contents of a repository, use the "list" command:
pinto -r ~/repo list
At this point, the listing will be empty because there is nothing in the repository. But you'll use the "list" command quite often during this tutorial.
Adding CPAN Modules
Suppose you are working on an application called My-App that contains a module called My::App, and it depends on the URI module. You can bring the URI module into your repository by using the pull command:
pinto -r ~/repo pull URI
You will be prompted to enter a log message that describes why this change is happening. The top of the message template will include a simple generated message that you can edit. The bottom of the message template shows exactly which modules have been added. Save the file and close your editor when you are done.
Now you should have the URI module in your Pinto repository. So lets look and see what we really got. Once again, use the list command to see the contents of the repository:
pinto -r ~/repo list
This time, the listing will look something like this:
rf URI 1.60 GAAS/URI-1.60.tar.gz rf URI::Escape 3.31 GAAS/URI-1.60.tar.gz rf URI::Heuristic 4.20 GAAS/URI-1.60.tar.gz ...
You can see that the URI module has been added to the repository, as well as all the prerequisites for URI, and all of their prerequisites, and so on.
Adding Private Modules
Now suppose that you've finished work on My-App and you are ready to release the first version. Using your preferred build tool (e.g ExtUtils::MakeMaker, Module::Build, Module::Install etc.) you package a release as My-App-1.0.tar.gz. Now you place the distribution into the Pinto repository with the add command:
$> pinto -r ~/repo add path/to/My-App-1.0.tar.gz
Again, you'll be prompted to enter a message to describe the change. When you list the repository contents now, it will include the My::App module and show you as the author of the distribution:
rl My::App 1.0 JEFF/My-App-1.0.tar.gz rf URI 1.60 GAAS/URI-1.60.tar.gz rf URI::Escape 3.31 GAAS/URI-1.60.tar.gz rf URI::Heuristic 4.20 GAAS/URI-1.60.tar.gz ...
Now that you have your modules inside the Pinto repository, the next step is to actually build and install them somewhere. Under the hood, a Pinto repository is organized just like a CPAN repository, so it is fully compatible with cpanm and any other Perl module installer. All you have to do is point the installer at your Pinto repository:
cpanm --mirror file://$HOME/repo --mirror-only My::App
That will build and install My::App using *only* the modules in your Pinto repository. So you'll get exactly the same versions of those modules every time, even if the module is removed or upgraded on the public CPAN.
With cpanm, the --mirror-only option is important because it prevents cpanm from falling back to the public CPAN when it can't find a module in your repository. When that happens, it usually means that some distribution in the repository doesn't have all the correct dependencies declared in its META file. To fix the problem, just use the pull command to fetch any modules that are missing.
Suppose that several weeks have passed since you first released My-App and now URI version 1.62 is available on the CPAN. It has some critical bug fixes that you'd like to get. Again, we can bring that into the repository using the pull command. But since your repository already contains a version of URI, you must indicate that you want a newer one by specifying the minimum version that you want:
pinto -r ~/repo pull URI~1.62
If you look at the listing again, this time you'll see the newer version of URI (and possibly other modules as well):
rl My::App 1.0 JEFF/My-App-1.0.tar.gz rf URI 1.62 GAAS/URI-1.62.tar.gz rf URI::Escape 3.38 GAAS/URI-1.62.tar.gz rf URI::Heuristic 4.20 GAAS/URI-1.62.tar.gz ...
If the new version of URI requires any upgraded or additional dependencies, those will be in the repository too. And when you install My::App, now you'll get version 1.62 of URI.
Working With Stacks
Thus far, we've treated the repository as a singular resource. So when we upgraded URI in the last section, it affected every person and every application that might have been using the repository. But this kind of broad impact is undesirable. You would prefer to make changes in isolation and test them before forcing everyone else to upgrade. This is what stacks are designed for.
All CPAN-like repositories have an index which maps the latest version of each module to the archive that contains it. Usually, there is only one index per repository. But in a Pinto repository, there can be many indexes. Each of these indexes is called a "stack". This allows you to create different stacks of dependencies within a single repository. So you could have a "development" stack and a "production" stack, or a "perl-5.8" stack and a "perl-5.16" stack. Whenever you add or upgrade a module, it only affects one stack.
But before going further, you need to know about the default stack. For most operations, the name of the stack is an optional parameter. So if you do not specify a stack explicitly, then the command is applied to whichever stack is marked as the default.
In any repository, there is never more than one default stack. When we created this repository, a stack called "master" was also created and marked as the default. You can change the default stack or change the name of a stack, but we won't go into that here. Just remember that "master" is the name of the stack that was created when the repository was first initialized.
Creating A Stack
Suppose your repository contains version 1.60 of URI but version 1.62 has been released to the CPAN, just like before. You want to try upgrading, but this time you're going to do it on a separate stack.
Thus far, everything you've added or pulled into the repository has gone into the "master" stack. So we're just going to make a clone of that stack using the copy command:
pinto -r ~/repo copy master uri_upgrade
This creates a new stack called "uri_upgrade". If you want to see the contents of that stack, just use the list command with the "--stack" option:
pinto -r ~/repo list --stack uri_upgrade
The listing should be identical to the "master" stack:
rl My::App 1.0 JEFF/My-App-1.0.tar.gz rf URI 1.60 GAAS/URI-1.60.tar.gz ...
Upgrading A Stack
Now that you've got a separate stack, you can try upgrading URI. Just as before, you'll use the pull command. But this time, you'll tell Pinto to pull the modules into the "uri_upgrade" stack:
pinto -r ~/repo pull --stack uri_upgrade URI~1.62
We can compare the "master" and "uri_upgrade" stacks using the "diff" command:
pinto -r ~/repo diff master uri_upgrade +rf URI 1.62 GAAS/URI-1.62.tar.gz +rf URI::Escape 3.31 GAAS/URI-1.62.tar.gz +rf URI::Heuristic 4.20 GAAS/URI-1.62.tar.gz ... -rf URI 1.60 GAAS/URI-1.60.tar.gz -rf URI::Escape 3.31 GAAS/URI-1.60.tar.gz -rf URI::Heuristic 4.20 GAAS/URI-1.60.tar.gz
The output is similar to the diff(1) command. Records starting with a "+" were added and those starting with a "-" were removed. You can see that modules from the URI-1.60 distribution have been replaced with modules from the URI-1.62 distribution.
Installing From A Stack
Once you have new modules on the "uri_upgrade" stack, you can try building your application by pointing cpanm at the stack. Each stack is just a subdirectory inside the repository, so all you have to do is add it to the URL:
cpanm --mirror file://$HOME/repo/stacks/uri_upgrade --mirror-only My::App
If all the tests pass, then you can confidently upgrade URI to version 1.62 in the "master" stack as well by using the pull command. Since "master" is the default stack, you can omit the "--stack" parameter:
pinto -r ~/repo pull URI~1.62
Working With Pins
Stacks are a great way to test the effect of changing your application dependencies. But what if the tests didn't pass? If the problem lies within My-App and you can quickly correct it, you might just modify your code, release version 2.0 of My-App, and then proceed to upgrade URI on the "master" stack.
But if the issue is a bug in URI or it will take a long time to fix My-App, then you have a problem. You don't want someone else to upgrade URI, nor do you want it to be upgraded inadvertently to satisfy some other prerequisite that My-App may have. Until you know the problem is fixed, you need to prevent URI from being upgraded. This is what pins are for.
Pinning A Module
When you pin a module, that version of the module is forced to stay in a stack. Any attempt to upgrade it (either directly or via another prerequisite) will fail. To pin a module, use the pin command:
pinto -r ~/repo pin URI
If you look at the listing for the "master" stack again, you'll see something like this:
... rl My::App 1.0 JEFF/My-App-1.0.tar.gz rf! URI 1.60 GAAS/URI-1.60.tar.gz rf! URI::Escape 3.31 GAAS/URI-1.60.tar.gz ...
The "!" near the beginning of a record indicates the module has been pinned. If anyone attempts to upgrade URI or a add distribution that requires a newer version of URI, then Pinto will give a warning and refuse to accept the new distributions. Notice that every module in the URI-1.60 distribution has been pinned, so it is impossible to partially upgrade a distribution (this situation could happen when a module moves into a different distribution).
Unpinning A Module
After a while, suppose you fix the problem in My-App or a new version of URI is released that fixes the bug. When that happens, you can unpin URI from the stack using the unpin command:
pinto -r ~/repo unpin URI
At this point you're free to upgrade URI to the latest version whenever you're ready. Just as with pinning, when you unpin a module it unpins every other module it the distribution as well.
Using Pins And Stacks Together
Pins and stacks are often used together to help manage change during the development cycle. For example, you could create a stack called "prod" that contains your known-good dependencies. At the same time, you could also create a stack called "dev" that contains experimental dependencies for your next release. Initially, the "dev" stack is just a copy of the "prod" stack.
As development proceeds, you may upgrade or add several modules on the "dev" stack. If an upgraded module breaks your application, then you'll place a pin in that module on the "prod" stack to signal that it shouldn't be upgraded.
Pins and Patches
Sometimes you may find that a new version of a CPAN distribution has a bug but the author is unable or unwilling to fix it (at least not before your next release is due). In that situation, you may decide to make a local patch of the CPAN distribution.
So suppose that you forked the code for URI and made a local version of the distribution called URI-1.60_PATCHED.tar.gz. You can add it to your repository using the add command:
pinto -r ~/repo add path/to/URI-1.60_PATCHED.tar.gz
In this situation, it is wise to pin the module as well, since you do not want it to be upgraded until you are sure that the new version from CPAN includes your patch or the author has fixed the bug by other means.
pinto -r ~/repo pin URI
When the author of URI releases version 1.62, you'll want to test it before deciding to unpin from your locally patched version. Just as before, this can be done by cloning the stack with the copy command. Let's call it the "trial" stack this time:
pinto -r ~/repo copy master trial
But before you can upgrade URI on the "trial" stack, you'll have to unpin it there:
pinto -r ~/repo unpin --stack trial URI
Now you can proceed to upgrade URI on the stack and try building My::App like this:
pinto -r ~/repo pull --stack trial URI~1.62 cpanm --mirror file://$HOME/repo/stacks/trial --mirror-only My::App
If all goes well, remove the pin from the "master" stack and pull the newer version of URI back into it.
pinto -r ~/repo unpin URI pinto -r ~/repo pull URI~1.62
Reviewing Past Changes
As you've probably noticed by now, each command that changes the state of a stack requires a log message to describe it. You can review those messages using the log command:
pinto -r ~/repo log
That should display something like this:
revision 4a62d7ce-245c-45d4-89f8-987080a90112 Date: Mar 15, 2013 1:58:05 PM User: jeff Pin GAAS/URI-1.59.tar.gz Pinning URI because it is not causes our foo.t script to fail revision 4a62d7ce-245c-45d4-89f8-987080a90112 Date: Mar 15, 2013 1:58:05 PM User: jeff Pull GAAS/URI-1.59.tar.gz URI is required for HTTP support in our application ...
The header for each message shows who made the change and when it happened. It also has a unique identifier similar to Git's SHA-1 digests. You can use these identifiers to see the diffs between different revisions or to reset the stack back to a prior revision [NB: this feature is not actually implemented yet].
In this tutorial, you've seen the basic commands for creating a Pinto repository and populating it with modules. You've also seen how to use stacks and pins to manage your dependencies in the face of some common development obstacles.
Each command has several options that were not discussed in this tutorial, and there are some commands that were not mentioned here at all. So I encourage you to explore the manual pages for each command and learn more.